How does a PRP prove it “had no reason to know” of the contamination for purposes of asserting the “innocent landowner” defense”?

A PRP “had no reason to know” of contamination if:

  • On or before the date on which the PRP acquired the real property, he carried out all “appropriate inquiries” into the previous ownership and uses of the property in accordance with generally accepted good commercial and customary standards and practices; and
  • The PRP took reasonable steps to stop any continuing “release” of hazardous substances, prevent any threatened future release of hazardous substances, and prevent or limit any human, environmental, or natural resource exposure to any previously released hazardous substance. 

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